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Resiliência e Estados Múltiplos



  • Scheffer, M. 2009. Alternative Stable States. In: Critical Transitions in Nature and Society, Chapter II, pp. 11-36, Princenton University Press.

Para discussão

  • Blindow I. et al. 1993. Long-term pattern of alternative stable states in two shallow eutrophic lakes. Freshwater Biology 30: 159-167.
  • Persson et al. 2007. Culling prey promotes predator recovery — alternative states in a whole-lake experiment. Science 316: 1743-1746., Supporting online material.

Material suplementar


  • Lewontin, RC. 1969. The meaning of stability. Brookhaven Symp Biol 22:13–23.
  • Holling C.S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4: 1-23.
  • May, R.M. 1977. Thresholds and breakpoints in ecosystems with a multiplicity of stable states. Nature 269: 471-477.
  • Scheffer, M. 2009. Critical Transitions in Nature and Society. Princeton Univ. Press.

Revisões e estudos de caso

  • Scheffer, M. et al. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413: 591-596.
  • Beisner, B.E. et al. 2003. Alternative stable states in ecology. Front. Ecol. Environ. 1: 376–382.
  • Elmqvist et al. 2003. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment1: 488–494.
  • Folke, C. et al. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35: 557–81.
  • Grimm, V. & Wissel, C. 1997. Babel, or the ecological stability discussions: an inventory and analysis of terminology and a guide for avoiding confusion. Oecologia 109: 323–334.
  • Staver et al. 2011. The Global Extent and Determinants of Savanna and Forest as Alternative Biome States.
  • Peterson, G. et al. 1998. Ecological Resilience,Biodiversity, and Scale. Ecosystems 1: 6–18.
  • Scheffer, M. et al. 2009. Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature 461: 53-59.
  • Scheffer, M., Westley, F., Brock, W. 2003. Slow Response of Societies to New Problems: Causes and Costs. Ecosystems 6: 493–502.
  • Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S.R., Lenton, T.M., Bascompte, J., Brock, W., Dakos, V., et al. (2012). Anticipating Critical Transitions. Science, 338, 344–348.
  • Schröder, A. et al. 2005. Direct experimental evidence for alternative stable states: a review. Oikos 110: 3-19.
  • van Nes, E.H. & Scheffer, M. 2004. Large species shifts triggered by small forces. Am. Nat. 164: 255-266.
  • Walker, B. et al. 2004. Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–ecological Systems. Ecology and Society 9:5.
  • Pardini et al. 2010. Beyond the fragmentation threshold hypothesis: regime shifts in biodiversity across fragmented landscapes.PLoS ONE 5 e13666
  • Hirota et al. 2011. Global resilience of tropical forest and savanna to critical transitions. Science 334: 232-235.
  • E.C. Zeeman, Catastrophe Theory, Scientific American, April 1976; pp. 65–70, 75–83.
  • Lansing, J.S., 2003. Complex adaptive systems. Annual review of anthropology, pp.183-204.
  • Dakos, V., Carpenter, S. R., Brock, W. A., Ellison, A. M., Guttal, V., Ives, A. R., … & Scheffer, M. (2012). Methods for detecting early warnings of critical transitions in time series illustrated using simulated ecological data. PloS one, 7(7), e41010.
André de Roos
  • de Roos, A.M. and Persson, L., 2013. Population and community ecology of ontogenetic development. Princeton University Press.


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